J Mature Dev (2008) 15: 148–159 DOI 10. 1007/s10804-008-9046-7
The Role of Generativity in Psychological Wellbeing: Does it Differ for Childless Adults and oldsters? Tanja Rothrauff Æ Teresa M. Cooney
Published on the net: 11 Oct 2008 Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008
Summary Given that motherhood is considered a central adult status with developmental significance, and increasingly more00 adults are childless, we assessed if adult creation is structured differently for parents and non-parents. This study's main goal was to assess and compare the bond between generativity development—a important task of middle adulthood—and psychological well-being for childless adults (N = 289) and parents (N = a couple of, 218), ages 35–74, using the 1995 MIDUS dataset. We all also reviewed differences in these kinds of associations for girls and men by parent status, mainly because childlessness is normally assumed to be more crucial for females' than males' expansion. Structural equation modeling suggested a positive relationship between generativity and psychological well-being. Differences in this affiliation for parents and childless adults were not apparent, nor are there signiﬁcant variations for childless women and mothers, and childless men and fathers. Significance of these ﬁndings are reviewed. Keywords Childless adults Á Generativity Á Parents Á Psychological health and wellness
An earlier variation of this newspaper was shown at the 3 years ago Annual Group meetings of the Countrywide Council upon Family Relationships, Pittsburgh, PA. T. Rothrauff (& ) Á To. M. Cooney Department of Human Creation and Relatives Studies, College or university of Missouri, 314 Medlock Hall, Columbia, MO 65211, USA email-based: [email protected] edu
An increasing number of adults today have never experienced parenthood for a variety of reasons (e. g., by choice, infertility), resulting in greater life training course diversity. In 1985, 11% of American ladies between the ages of forty and forty-four years did not have children; by 2004, the number of childless women in this age category had practically doubled (19%; Dye 2005). Despite the elevated percentage of older childless adults, parenthood is still considered the norm and a central adult position with signiﬁcant developmental ramifications. In particular, internal wellbeing, a significant indicator of adult creation, is often associated with parenthood (McAdams 2001; McMullin and Marshall 1996). Generativity, which is the psychological have to care for and give back to the next generation, is also typically considered regarding parenthood (McAdams and de St . Aubin 1992). Yet, empirical ﬁndings regarding the association between mental wellbeing and generativity creation, based on parent status, will be mixed (An and Cooney 2006; Beckman and Houser 1982; Koropeckyj-Cox 2002; McAdams and de St . Aubin 1992). Additionally , little is well known about the inﬂuence of generativity upon multiple proportions of psychological well-being and how its position may differ in the development of elderly childless adults and parents. Framed by Erikson's (1963) psychological theory, this study examines and even comes close the connection between generativity and psychological well-being pertaining to mid- to latelife childless adults and oldsters. Generativity features primary interest because of its theorized importance intended for development in middle adulthood, association with parenthood, and link to mature well-being. We all conceptualize psychological well-being as multidimensional, employing Ryff's (1989) six, trusted, theoretically based domains of psychological working. In addition , since early the child years experiences put the foundation for life course
Generativity and Well-Being
development and progression through the developmental levels proposed simply by Erikson, we consider early family experiences as a potential inﬂuence in both generativity processes for midlife and psychological health and wellness. Finally, we examine if parental position differences in the text between...
Sources: Allen, E. R. (1989). Single women/family ties: Your life histories of older girls. Newbury Playground, CA: Sage. Allison, L. D. (2001). Missing data. Thousand Oak trees, CA: Sage. An, J. S., & Cooney, To. (2006). Internal well-being in mid to late existence: The position of generativity development and parent-child relationships across the lifespan. International Log of Behavioral Development, 35, 20–31. Arnett, J. J. (1997). Small people's concepts of the move to adulthood. Youth and Society, 30, 3–23. Astone, N. Meters., Nathanson, C. A., Schoen, R., & Kim, Y. J. (1999). Family demography, social theory and investment in interpersonal capital. Human population and Creation Review, twenty-five, 1–32. Circunstancia, S. T. (2002). Adult development and parenthood: A socialcognitive perspective. In L. Demick (Ed. ), Guide of adult development (pp. 391–415). Ny: Kluwer Academics. Baltes, L. B. (1987). Theoretical propositions of life-span developmental mindset: On the characteristics between expansion and decrease. Developmental Psychology, 23, 611–626. Beckman, M. J., & Houser, W. B. (1982). The consequences of childlessness within the social-psychological health and wellness of elderly women. Journal of Gerontology, 37, 243–250. Belsky, L. (1997). Determinants of accessory security: Mother's infant and social-contextual inﬂuences. In W. Koops, L. Hoksma & van family room Boom (Eds. ), Early mother–child interaction and
158 connection: Old and new methods (pp. 39–52). Amsterdam: North Holland Submitting. Braverman, T. (1989). Over and above the myth of motherhood. In M. McGoldrick, C. Meters. Anderson & F. Walsh (Eds. ), Women in families (pp. 227–243). New York: Norton. Short, A. S., Butcher, A. H., George, J. M., & Hyperlink, K. At the. (1993). Adding bottom–up and top–down theories of very subjective wellbeing: The case of wellness. Journal of Personality and Social Mindset, 64, 646–653. Connidis, I. A., & Davies, L. (1990). Conﬁdants and companions in after life: The place of family and friends. Journal of Gerontology: Cultural Sciences, forty-five, S141–S149. Connidis, I. A., & McMullin, J. A. (1993). To acquire or have not really: Parent status and the very subjective well-being of older men and ladies. The Gerontologist, 33, 630–636. Deater-Deckard, K., & Chouse, K. A. (1997). Externalizing behavior challenges and discipline revisited: non-linear effects and variation simply by culture, context, and male or female. Psychological Inquiry, 8, 161–175. Dye, J. L. (2005). Fertility of yankee women: 06 2004. Retrieved July 09, 2007, coming from http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/ p20-555. pdf. Edin, K., & Kefalas, Meters. (2005). Claims that I will keep: Why poor women set motherhood ahead of marriage. Berkeley, CA: University or college of A bunch of states Press. Eggebeen, D. T., & Knoester, C. (2001). Does fatherhood matter for guys? Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 381–393. Older, G. H., Jr. (1998). The life program as developmental theory. Kid Development, 69, 1–12. Elder, G. They would., Johnson, Meters. K., & Crosnoe, L. (2003). The emergence and development of existence course theory. In T. T. Mortimer & Meters. J. Shanahan (Eds. ), Handbook in the life program (pp. 3–22). New York: Plenum. Erikson, At the. H. (1963). Childhood and society. Ny: Norton. Erikson, E. H. (1978). Adult life. New York: Norton. Erikson, Elizabeth. H. (1985). The life routine completed: A review. New York: W. W. Franz, C. E., McClelland, G. C., & Weinberger, L. (1991). Childhood antecedents of conventional interpersonal accomplishment in midlife adults: A 36-year prospective examine. Journal of Personality and Social Mindset, 60, 586–589. Gillespie, R. (2003). Childfree and feminine: Comprehending the gender identity of voluntarily childless females. Gender and Society, 18, 122–136. Gould, R. D. (1978). Conversions: Growth and alter in mature life. New york city: Simon & Schuster. Hareven, T. E. (1991). The of the family and the difficulty of cultural change. American Historical Assessment, 96, 95–124. Hawkins, A. J., & Dollahite, D. C. (1997). Generative fathering: Beyond deﬁcit perspectives. 1000 Oaks, CALIFORNIA: Sage. Heaton, T., Jacobson, C., & Holland, T. (1999). Perseverance and change in decisions to be childless. Log of Relationship and the Family, 61, 531–539. Jeffries, S., & Konnert, C. (2002). Regret and psychological well-being among under your own accord and involuntarily childless ladies and mothers. Worldwide Journal of Aging and Human Advancement, 54, 89–106. Kandel, Deb. B., Davies, M., & Raveis, Versus. H. (1985). The stressfulness of daily social roles for women: Marriage, occupational and household functions. Journal of Health and Cultural Behavior, 21, 64– 79. Kessler, L. C., Davis, C. G., & Kendler, K. T. (1997). Child years adversity and adult psychiatric disorder in america National Comborbidity Survey. Mental Medicine, 28, 1101–1119. Keyes, C. D. M., & Ryff, C. D. (1998). Generativity in adult lives: Social structural contours and quality of life outcomes. In D.
T. Rothrauff, T. Meters. Cooney S. McAdams & E. sobre St . Aubin (Eds. ), Generativity and adult development: How and why our company is for the next era (pp. 227–264). Washington, POWER: American Internal Association. Koropeckyj-Cox, T. (1998). Loneliness and depression in middle and old age: Will be the childless more vulnerable? Journals of Gerontology: Sociable Sciences, 53B, S503–S312. Koropeckyj-Cox, T. (2002). Beyond parental status: Mental well-being in middle and old age. Record of Marriage and Family, 64, 957–971. Koropeckyj-Cox, Big t. (2003). Three childless in a number of pathways into old age. In J. Gubrium & M. Holstein (Eds. ), Techniques for aging (pp. 77– 95). Malden, MA: Blackwell Submitting. Koropeckyj-Cox, Big t., & Pendell, G. (2007). Attitudes about childlessness in america: Correlates of positive, fairly neutral, and unfavorable responses. Record of Family Issues, twenty-eight, 1054–1082. Kotre, J. (1996). White mitts: How we produce ourselves through memory. New York: Norton. LaMastro, V. (2001). Childless by choice? Don and perceptions concerning family size. Sociable Behavior and Personality, 30, 231–244. LeMasters, G. (1957). Parenthood since crisis. Matrimony and Family Living, nineteen, 352–355. Letherby, G. (2002). Childless and bereft? Stereotypes and realities in relation to voluntary and involuntary childlessness and womanhood. Cultural Inquiry, 72, 7–20. Levinson, D. L. (1978). The seasons of man's life. Ny: Knopf. Loehlin, L. J. (2004). Important variable types: An introduction to factor, path, and structural analysis (4th ed. ). Mahwah, NJ-NEW JERSEY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. Meters., West, S i9000. G., & Sheets, Versus. (2002). A comparison of strategies to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7, 83–104. McAdams, D. P. (2001). The mindset of existence stories. Report on General Psychology, 5, 100–122. McAdams, D. P., & de St Aubin, At the. (1992). A theory of generativity and its assessment through self-report, behavioral acts, and narrative designs in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 221–230. McAdams, D. P., para St . Aubin, E., & Logan, Ur. L. (1993). Generativity between young, midlife, and elderly adults. Psychology and Ageing, 8, 221–230. McMullin, J. A., & Marshall, Sixth is v. W. (1996). Family, friends, stress and well-being: Does childlessness really make a difference? Canadian Record on Aging, 15, 355–373. Merrill, D. M. (1997). Caring for seniors parents: Balancing work, friends and family, and caregiving in central and functioning class family members. Westport, COMPUTERTOMOGRAFIE: Auburn Property. Milardo, R. (2005). Generative uncle and nephew interactions. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 1226–1236. Moen, P., & Roehling, L. (2005). The career mystique: Splits in the American dream. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littleﬁeld Publishing Group. Morgan, T. P., & Berkowitz Full, R. (2001). Why have got children nowadays? Biological proneness, social coercion, rational choice. European Diary of Population, 17, 3–20. Nakano Glenn, E. (1994). Social improvements of mothering: A thematic overview. In E. Nakano Glenn, G. Chang & L. Rennie (Eds. ), Mothering ideology, experience, and agency (pp. 1–29). Birmingham: Routledge. Palkovitz, R. (2002). Involved fathering and men's adult creation: Provisional balances. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Playground, K. (2002). Stigma management among the under your own accord childless. Sociological Perspectives, forty five, 21–45.
Generativity and Well-Being Parker, G. (1983). Parental ‘‘affectionless control'' as an antecedent to mature depression. Records of Standard Psychiatry, forty, 956–960. Robins, L. D., Schoenberg, T. P., Holmes, S. J., Ratcliff, T. S., Benham, A., & Works, J. (1985). Early on home environment and retrospective recall: A test for concordance among siblings with and without psychiatric disorders. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, fifty-five, 27–41. Rossi, A. H. (2001). Developing roots of adult sociable responsibility. Within a. S. Rossi (Ed. ), Caring and doing for others: Social responsibility in the domains of family, work, and community (pp. 227–320). Chi town: University of Chicago Press. Rossi, A., & Rossi, P. (1990). Of human bonding. Ny: de Gruyter. Rubinstein, Ur. L. (1996). Childlessness, legacy, and generativity. Generations, 20, 58–60. Ryff, C. Deb. (1989). Delight is everything, or perhaps is it? Research on the meaning of psychological well-being. Diary of Personality and Interpersonal Psychology, 57, 1069–1081. Shaw, B. A., Krause, In., Chatters, T. M., Connell, C. Meters., & IngersollDayton, B. (2004). Emotional support from parents early in life, ageing, and well being. Psychology and Aging, 19, 4–12. Snarey, J. (1993). How dads care for the next generation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Snarey, T., Son, D., Kuehne, Versus., Hauser, H., & Vaillant, G. (1987). The part of raising a child in men's psychosocial expansion: A
159 longitudinal research of early on adulthood infertility and midlife generativity. Developing Psychology, 3, 593–603. Steinberg, L., Favorite, N. Electronic., & Fletcher, A. C. (1995). Authoritative parenting and adolescent expansion: An environmental journey. In P. Moen, G. L. Elder Junior. & E. Luescher (Eds. ), Reviewing lives in circumstance (pp. 423–466). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Stevens, J. T. (1996). Having children among unwed African American children: A review of hypotheses. Afﬁlia, 14, 278–302. Thornton, A., & Young-DeMarco, H. (2001). Several decades of trends in attitudes toward family problems in the United States: The 1960's throughout the 1990's. Record of Matrimony and Family, 63, 1009– 1037. Vaillant, G. Electronic., & Milofsky, E. (1980). Natural history of male mental health: IX. Empirical data for Erikson's model of the life cycle. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 1348–1359. Wallen, J. (2002). Balancing work and relatives: The position of the office. Boston: Allyn & Cash. Whitbeck, T. B., Hoyt, D. 3rd there�s r., Simons, Ur. L., Conger, R. D., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., et approach. (1992). Intergenerational continuity of parental denial and despondent affect. Record of Persona and Cultural Psychology, 63, 1036–1045. Zhang, Z., & Hayward, Meters. D. (2001). Childlessness plus the psychological health and wellness of elderly persons. Record of Gerontology, 56B, S311–S320.